Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Peter Tarnoff and senior officials, including the Director of the Joint Staff, drafted and approved this cable delivering instructions to the US Mission in New York for Security Council debate over replenishing UNAMIR. With much of the killing completed and most of the remaining armed forces fleeing the RPF’s countrywide advance, US officials argue against a UN plan for a robust effort launched into Kigali to protect surviving Rwandans, rescue others, and deliver assistance. Such a plan, “in current circumstances, would require a Chapter VII mandate”, and the US “is not prepared at this point to lift heavy equipment and troops into Kigali”. It is however, willing to consider its own plan, “outside-in”, by which protective zones would be established on Rwanda’s borders. Even this plan, however, is likely to be “an active protection operation requiring the use of lethal force.” As for the several thousand Rwandans in Kigali under deteriorating UN protection, “we recommend that these ad hoc protective efforts should continue until a suitable alternative arrangement can be ensured.” Even when a plan for 5,500 troops with a protection mandate is finally approved on May 17, the troops would not all be in place until September, two months after the RPF captures the country and one month after Gen. Dallaire completed his service in Rwanda.