As the carnage continued and a robust response by the US or others was not forthcoming, human rights groups, members of Congress, and others urged the Clinton Administration to counter or “jam” extremist radio broadcasts in Rwanda. These broadcasts spread fear amongst the Rwandan populace, urged participation in the killing, shamed those who sought not to participate, and in many cases, specifically named and provided the whereabouts of those to be killed. As such, the radio broadcasts were essential to the fulfillment of the program of extermination. In this memo, Frank Wisner, the number three official at the Pentagon, acknowledges internal discussions about the feasibility of countering the hate radio. He replies to Sandy Berger, the deputy to National Security Adviser Tony Lake, that undertaking the initiative to “jam” the radio would be “ineffective and expensive”; a “wiser” activity would be to assist the “relief effort”.