France Génocide Tutsi France Génocide Tutsi

Database about France role

in the Tutsi genocide

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While so-called experts claim that the Tutsi's genocide has not been prepared before April 6, 1994, one has to listen to Jean Carbonare who, returning from Rwanda, warned the televiewers on January 28, 1993 about the massacres of tutsi men and about the support of the murderers by France.

Jean Chatain
Night and fog over Rwanda
Jean Chatain's articles for the newspaper L'Humanité during the Tutsi's genocide in 1994
Izuba editions, January 2020

Monique Mas
Paris-Kigali 1990-1994 - Colonial glasses, saber politics and humanitarian anointing for a genocide in Africa
Éditions L'Harmattan, 1999

La France au cœur du génocide des Tutsi by Jacques Morel

Version v2.29, July 28, 2020, 65 Megs, 1600 pages

Hubert Védrine's confession at Defence and Force Armies Commission, National Assembly, April 16, 2014

1933 Pagès, Albert
Au Ruanda, sur les bords du lac Kivu (Congo belge). Un royaume hamite au centre de l'Afrique. T. I

In « A hamite kingdom in central Africa », Father Pagès, influenced by De Gobineau, writes the history of Rwanda in terms of races. « The word Hamites is used to identify the Batutsi. The community of origin of the Hamites with the Semites (Egyptians or Abyssinians) seems out of dispute ».

24 mars 1957 Kayibanda, Grégoire
Note sur l'aspect social du problème racial indigène au Ruanda (Le manifeste des Bahutu)

« The departure of the European could reduce [the Muhutu] in a servitude worse than the first ».

6 juin 1961 De Lacger, Louis

In this story of Ruanda, canon de Lacger defines stereotypes that will fuel genocidal propaganda. « Batutsi are, no doubt, the latest to come to Rwanda [...] Their supremacy is not disputed. What is it stemming from ? From three points. The racial one, their physical type superiority [...] ; the other economic : they are magnates, whose wealth is made up of large herds of cattle [...] ; the third policy : they are men born for the command ». (p. 51)

11 octobre 1990 Lanxade, Jacques
Note à l'attention de Monsieur le Président de la République. Objet : RWANDA - Situation

France is fighting against « Tutsi forces ».

Décembre 1990
Kangura No. 6 : L'Appel à la conscience des Bahutu, suivi des Dix Commandements

The Call to the conscience of the Bahutu, followed by the Ten Commandments of Muhutu. « Bahutu must stop pitying Batutsi »

21 septembre 1992 Nsabimana, Deogratias
Définition et identification de l'ENI

« L'ennemi principal est le Tutsi [...] qui n'a jamais reconnu et ne reconnaît pas encore les réalités de la Révolution Sociale de 1959 et qui veut reconquérir le pouvoir ».

11 mars 1993 Martres, Georges
TD Kigali 11 mars 1993 - Position du CDR sur les accords de Dar es-Salaam

The French ambassador shares the point of view of the Coalition for the Defense of the Republic (CDR) which judges that President Habyarimana is « worn out » and « finally failed everything ».

May 2, 1994 Keating, Colin
Security Council : Rwanda

Rwanda and France sought to amend opening paras to remove assertion that Government forces were responsible for the bulk of the killings.

6 mai 1994 Quesnot, Christian
Note à l'attention de Monsieur le Président de la République

In the middle of the genocide, while the RPF hunts the killers of eastern Rwanda, General Quesnot is worried about the creation of a « Tutsiland » with the help of Anglo-Saxons and writes to president Mitterrand : « We have the means and the relays of an indirect strategy that could restore a certain balance ».

16 novembre 2020 Englebert, Théo
Commission Rwanda: l'historienne controversée prend la porte

The article in Le Canard enchaîné of October 28, 2020 arouses controversy over historian Julie d'Andurain who wrote a notice on Operation Turquoise in the 2018 edition of the Dictionary foreign operations of the French army . She makes gross factual errors and numerous omissions. Instead of talking about the genocide of Tutsis, she mentions massacres between Hutus and Tutsis. It is the participation of this historian in the commission on Rwanda chaired by Vincent Duclert that rises a problem. Blamed, Julie d'Andurain said she was the victim of a media lynching and alerted his fellow researchers who have published a message of support. Following the protest of two historians who considered that d'Andurain's text was at the heart of the negation, the majority of the members of the board of the French Society for the History of the Overseas (SFHOM), which had defended d'Andurain, have resigned. Eventually, Vincent Duclert took note of Madame d'Andurain's decision to withdraw from the work of the Commission.

30 septembre 2020
Exécution d'un mandat d'arrêt international et génocide [des Tutsi] rwandais

The Court of Cassation dismisses the appeal brought by Félicien Kabuga against his surrender to the International Mechanism which succeeds the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda trying those presumed responsible for the genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda in 1994

3 juillet 2020 Gras, Romain
Génocide des Tutsi : la justice française referme le dossier sur l'attentat contre l'avion de Juvénal Habyarimana

La cour d'appel de Paris a confirmé le non-lieu dans l'instruction sur l'attentat du 6 avril 1994 contre l'avion du président Juvénal Habyarimana. Ouverte en mars 1998, cette instruction a mené le juge Bruguière à accuser Paul Kagame d'avoir commis l'attentat contre le président Habyarimana et provoqué le génocide des Tutsi pour prendre le pouvoir. Il a été contredit par l'expertise réalisée à Kigali à la demande de son successeur. Le tir qui a abattu l'avion serait parti du camp militaire de Kanombe ou de son environnement immédiat. Un attentat commis par les extrémistes du Hutu Power semble le scénario le plus probable. En conclusion, le juge français rend donc un non-lieu en faveur des proches de Paul Kagame accusés par le juge Bruguière. Cette affaire, qui a provoqué la rupture des relations diplomatiques, n'est pas encore close. La France n'a plus d'ambassadeur à Kigali depuis 2015.

12 juin 2020
Le Conseil d'État statuant dans sa formation la plus solennelle [sur la consultation anticipée de certaines archives du Président François Mitterrand par François Graner]

The Conseil d'Etat's decision invokes Article 15 of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen society has the right to hold any public official to account for his administration, which guarantees the right of access to public archive documents, as well as article 10 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms relating to freedom of expression, from which may result - under certain conditions - a right of access to information held by the State.

16 mai 2020
Un des principaux génocidaires rwandais arrêté par les gendarmes après 25 ans de cavale

Félicien Kabuga, membre de l'Akazu, président du comité d'initiative de la RTLM et financier présumé du génocide, a été arrêté en France après 25 ans de cavale.

June 2019 Kiley, Sam
The discovery of Bisesero

Sam Kiley recounts how Father Curic, met in Kibuye on June 25, 1994, urged him to go to Bisesero where he discovered that Tutsi killings were continuing. On June 26, on his way to Goma by Gisenyi, he meets a French military convoy. He alerts Captain Eric Bucquet and shows him Bisesero on the map as recorded by a CNN footage. The French will not help the Tutsi. On June 29, Kiley returns to Gishyita near Bisesero and warns captain Marin Gillier, who does not want to hear anything. On June 30, Kiley precedes him in Gisovu and with Michel Peyrard of Paris-Match, they will find survivors in Bisesero. Peyrard will warn Captain Dunant and Chief Warrant Officer Prungnaud to initiate the rescue operation.

14 mars 2019 Servenay, David
Pour la première fois, un général reconnaît la « faute » de la France au Rwanda

On November 1990, Colonel Rwagafilita told General Varret I ask you these weapons, because I will participate with the army in the liquidation of the problem. The problem is very simple : Tutsis are not very numerous, we will wipe them out.Back in Paris, General Varret reports but in vain. On 1993, he is ousted from the command of the Military Cooperation Mission by a military lobby close to the president François Mitterrand who « did not want to take into account the risks of this policy of support to Habyarimana ». Unfortunately, adds Varret, « the history proved it was an offence, more than a mistake, since it resulted in genocide »

6 février 2019 Arfi, Fabrice
Génocide au Rwanda: révélations sur les mensonges de la France

About the attack on Rwandan President Habyarimana, Mediapart and Radio France reveal a note from the intelligence service (DGSE) that the two main sponsors are Colonels Théoneste Bagosora and Laurent Serubuga, the latter being in France. This note confirms Jean Birara's testimony of 26 May 1994. Why was this DGSE note of 22 September 1994 never taken into account?

25 octobre 2018 Arfi, Fabrice
Génocide des Tutsis au Rwanda: la vidéo qui accable l'armée française

While the French command claims that Lieutenant-Colonel Duval alias Diego did not report on his meeting on June 27, 1994 with Tutsi hunted in Bisesero, a video of the following day shows Sergeant Meynier informing of this tragic situation Colonel Rosier who seems not to worry about it. He will not give orders to rescue them.

10 octobre 2018 Renucci, Nicolas
Réquisitoire définitif aux fins de non-lieu

In the judicial investigation into the attack on the plane of President Habyarimana, the Paris prosecutor's office requires a dismissal in favor of Rwandans indicted by Judge Bruguière.He does not identify the clues that lead to establish a French complicity with the perpetrators of the attack: presence of French soldiers at the scene of the crash, disappearance of the plane's black box and missile debris, role of former Captain Barril, presence of Mistral missiles in Kigali...

13 septembre 2018 Macron, Emmanuel
Déclaration du président de la République à propos de l'affaire Maurice Audin

After 61 years of lies, the President of the Republic recognizes that the mathematician Maurice Audin was assassinated by French soldiers in Algiers in 1957 and that such "disappearances" were counted by thousands in Algeria.

6 septembre 2013 Minnaert, Stefaan
Musinga et les Pères Blancs : Rapport politique confidentiel du 24 mars 1918

This report of a Belgian officer from 1918 shows the attempts of the Mwami Musinga to preserve his power while his country is beset by the Europeans. Threatened by the Belgians coming from the Congo, he accepted the German domination. But the Belgians with their Force publique fought the Germans out of Ruanda-Urundi in 1916. They put the Mwami in jail for treason but then change their minds.The country is devastated by the war. The White Fathers, many of whom are French, welcome Belgians.They will further increase their power to the detriment of traditional authorities. The Mwami here confides his grievances against them. He asks that they confine themselves to their religion and stop interfering in the affairs of the country.

18 septembre 2008 Minnaert, Stefaan
Les Pères Blancs et la Société Rwandaise durant l'Époque Coloniale Allemande (1900 ­-1916). Une rencontre entre cultures et religions, in Les Religions au Rwanda, défis, convergences et compétitions, Actes du Colloque International des 18-19 septembre 2008 à Butare/Huye, Editions de l'Université Nationale du Rwanda, Septembre 2009, pp. 53-101.

Stefaan Minnaert, former librarian of the House of the White Fathers in Rome, reveals the original documents, somewhat different from the holy story told for the edification of Christians. We learn here that at the mission of Rwaza in 1904, Father Léon Classe, future bishop of Rwanda, did not disdain to use firearms to punish the natives who refused to work on the construction of the mission. This use of force is not stranger to the death of Father Loupias in 1910.

8 juillet 1998 Quilès, Paul
Audition de M. le Préfet Claude Silberzahn, directeur général de la DGSE (1989-1993) (huis clos)

The DGSE regretted, since 1991, the increasing commitment of the French military apparatus in the Rwandan affair and recommended in writing and orally, as early as 1992, the military disengagement of France. The French military apparatus was presumptuous over its means, out of step with reality, unaware of its ignorance of the field.

Novembre 1994 Blam, Wolfgang
Témoignage à Kibuye - Le génocide comme instrument politique « moderne »

Wolfgang Blam, a German doctor, stayed in Kibuye until mid-May 1994. He tried to help the Tutsi parked in the stadium but they were murdered. His brothers-in-law and Beatrice, the wife of the director of the hospital, Camille Kalimwabo, and their four children were also exterminated. With his wife Jackie and their newborn son, they became hunted like wild beasts until rescued by german fellows through Lake Kivu. His account of the events is precise, cold and scathing. Original in German

2 septembre 1994 Artiges, Guy
Audition de François Nzabahimana

Former Captain Barril met with Rwandan government officials in Gisenyi at the end of May - early June 1994. He was introduced by Colonel Serubuga. He was accompanied by three mercenaries of white ``race'' within which a mortar firing specialist.

9 août 1994 Goblet d'Alviella, Michael
Rwanda : Situation à Kigali le 6 et le 7 avril 1994

Major Ntambabazi Charles, commander of the Kanombe transport company, reveals that two para-commando companies were moved from Kanombe camp to the Kimuhurura Presidential Guard camp on April 1st or 2, 1994.

June 26, 1994 Amanpour, Christiane
Rwanda French Patrol

On June 26, 1994, a CNN team followed a French military convoy from Goma, Zaire, to Kibuye, Rwanda. They meet journalists including Sam Kiley of the Times who are returning from Bisesero and alert Captain Eric Bucquet on the situation of the last Tutsi survivors who are still hunted down. Kiley shows him Bisesero on the map. Journalists Patrick de Saint Exupery of Le Figaro and François Hugeux of L'Express will recount this meeting. But the French military will continue to allow the massacres until June 30 return to Bisesero, Sam Kiley helped Michel Peyrard Paris-Match convince French soldiers to rescue the survivors.

12 mai 1994 Goblet d'Alviella, Michael
Entretien avec M. A. Gasana, ancien Ministre des Affaires étrangères et de la Coopération du Rwanda

De son entretien avec M. A. Gasana, ancien Ministre des Affaires étrangères du Rwanda, l'ambassadeur de Belgique à Dar Es-Salaam retient que la culpabilité de la garde présidentielle et de l'armée rwandaise dans l'assassinat du président Habyarimana et les massacres qui ont suivi ne fait pratiquement aucun doute.

6 mai 1994 Goblet d'Alviella, Michael
Entretien avec l'ambassadeur Marlaud

Visiting Dar-es-Salaam, ambassador Marlaud tells his Belgian counterpart that he had advised them to take Twagiramungu as Prime Minister.

5 mai 1994 Haesendonck, Yves
Rwanda - Conférence de presse

The Rwandan Foreign Minister's visit to Paris was aimed at asking France to decode the black box of the plane shot down.

12 avril 1994 Brazeal, Aurelea
Colonel Blames Right Wing Military for Kigali's Nightmare

Colonel Rusatira denounces the secret organization Amasasu for triggering the massacres

11 mars 1994 Claes, Willy
Livraison d'armes [par la France]

80 tons of shells, rockets, mortars, France continues its arms deliveries to the FAR in Kigali despite the Arusha peace agreement. Willy Claes, Belgian Foreign Minister, reports that the Secretary-General of the United Nations is worried about this.

26 septembre 1933 Servranckx, André
Territoires du Ruanda Urundi. Résidence du Ruanda. Territoire d'Astrida. Rapport de Sortie de Charge. Etabli par M. Servranckx André, Administrateur Territorial de Ière Cl. [Première Classe]. ayant administré le Territoire d'Astrida depuis le 27 Aout 1932. 69 pages.

« One can write that distinction Batutsi - Bahutu does not include in the eyes of the native, as for us, a distinction of race, but of wealth and influence. A Muhutu owner of cows is a Mututsi »

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